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Cheapest professional writing, breast cancer essays

17 March 2017

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Paula was awarded the resident writer’s award from the 2009 taos summer writer’s conference in new mexico and was one of three first-prize winners in wordhustler’s 2009 summer poetry contest

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Jewish Community Olomouc


About Us

The Jewish citizens who survived the horrors of the war were quick to restore a religious community in 1945. Few in number, however, they continued to dwindle through old age and emigration, until in 1962, as part of a new regional arrangement, the Olomouc congregation was meant to become a mere synagogal choir attached to the Jewish Religious Community of Ostrava. A revival of religious practice and ceremony in Olomouc was brought about by the democratic transformations that followed 1989, and by 1 April 1991 a separate religious community was re-established, covering the districts of Olomouc, Šumperk, Jeseník, Bruntál and Přerov.


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    4. Breast Cancer Essays

    Breast Cancer Essays (Examples)

    Related Topics:

    • Cancer

    • American Cancer Society

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    • Prostate Cancer

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    Breast Cancer

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    Words: 1088 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57281729

    Breast Cancer

    roject Title: Women who chose Lumpectomy Over rophylactic Mastectomy as Treatment for Early Stage Breast Cancer May have an Increased Risk for ost-Treatment Anxiety Regarding Fear of Recurrence.

    This proposed research plan will address the post treatment psychology of Stage I breast cancer patients who have received the less invasive breast retention surgery, referred to as lumpectomy.

    Do women with early stage breast cancer have more intrusive thoughts (stress) regarding recurrence after lumpectomy than after prophylactic mastectomy? Within the survivor group the study will specifically address issues of psychological anxiety related to recurrence of cancer. The study will be retrospective, based upon cognitive memories of post treatment anxiety related to recurrence of breast cancer and subjects will be chosen in a non-random fashion. The main research query will be: Do women who choose prophylactic mastectomy after early stage breast cancer return to their pre-diagnostic sense of wellness as…… [Read More]

    P.G. Norton (Feb 1, 2003) “Another study supports breast conservation over mastectomy. (For Phase I or II Cancer)” Internal Medicine News, 36/3 pg. 29.

    E. Mechcatie (Dec 1, 2002) “Similar survival in mastectomy, breast conservation. (20-

    Year Follow-Up).” Family Practice News, 32/23 pg. 6.


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    Breast Cancer in Malaysia Breast Cancer Has

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    Words: 3180 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4734530

    Breast Cancer in Malaysia

    Breast cancer has turned out to be one of the most common cancers in women in almost every part of the world. Nonetheless, there is a noticeable geographical difference in the incidence and also the stage of presentation. It has ben documented to be uppermost in North Europe and North America, in-between in Mediterranean nations and South America, and not high at all in Asia and Africa nations (Abdullah, 2003). During the year of 2000 there had been 1,050,346 circumstances of breast cancer that had been documented international and 372,969 deaths from the illness (Sharifah, 2010). In industrialized nations the incidence was around 94.93 per 100,000 populace, and in less advanced states it somewhere around 19.66 per 100,000 populations (Taib, 2012). With that said this essay will discuss breast cancer in Malaysia.

    Background and Definition of the Problem

    The basic issue is the lack of a…… [Read More]


    Abdullah, N.H., & Yip, C.H. (2003). Spectrum of breast cancer in Malaysian women: Overview. World Journal of Surgery, 27(8), 921-3.

    Agarwal, G., Pradeep, P.V., Aggarwal, V., Cheng-Har Yip, & Cheung, P.S.Y. (2007). Spectrum of breast cancer in asian women. World Journal of Surgery, 31(5), 1031-40

    Ahmad, F., Binti Muhammad, M., & Abdullah, A.A. (2011). Religion and spirituality in coping with advanced breast cancer: Perspectives from malaysian muslim women. Journal of Religion and Health, 50(1), 36-45.

    Baig, M.R., Subramaniam, V., Chandrasegar, A.A., & Khan, T.M. (2011). A population-based survey on knowledge and awareness of breast cancer in the suburban females of sungai petani, kedah, malaysia. International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health, 3(9), 671-679.


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    Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

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    Words: 2914 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95988583

    Breast Cancer Pathophysiology

    Breast Cancer

    Advanced Pathophysiology

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. There are three general determinants associated with the cause of the disease: heredity factors, environmental factors, and hormonal factors. The risk of developing breast cancer increases with age, as 78% of cases are diagnosed in women ages 50 and older. isk factors are distinguished by their respective etiological influences, such as family history, lifestyle, and exposure to pollutants. The pathophysiology of breast cancer is focused into two cellular models: sporadic clonal evolution and cancer stem cell. The pathological progress of breast cancer stages is understood and is used for diagnostic purposes. Treatment for breast cancer often involves invasive interventions; the future of breast cancer treatment is concentrated within genomic targeted therapies and the identification of cancer stem cell biomarkers as a preventative treatment method.

    Breast Cancer

    Breast cancer is the most frequently…… [Read More]


    Bombonati, A., & Sgroi, D. (2010). The molecular pathology of breast cancer progression. Journal of Pathology, 223, 307-317.

    Brody, J., & Rudel, R. (2003). Environmental pollutants and breast cancer. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(8), 1007-1019.

    Charafe-Jauffret, E., Ginestier, C., Iovino, F., & Wicinski, J. (2009). Breast cancer cell lines contain functional cancer stem cells metastatic capacity and a distinct molecular signature. Cancer Research, 69(4), 1302-1313.

    Eberl, M., Philips, R., Lamberts, H., Okkes, I., & Maboney, M. (2008). Characterizing breast symptoms in family practice. Annals of Family Medicine, 6(6), 528-533.


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    Breast Cancer Is a Disease

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    Words: 4768 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63242748

    Partial Mastectomy- a procedure that remove part of the breast that contains the cancer and some tissue around the affected tissue. This type of surgery is also called a segmental mastectomy (Breast Cancer Treatment).

    In addition the National Cancer Institute reports that patients who undergo the aforementioned types of surgeries may also have some lymph nodes removed (Breast Cancer Treatment).

    Another type of surgery that does not conserve the breast is the total mastectomy. During this type of surgery the entire cancerous breast is removed (Breast Cancer Treatment). This type of surgery is also referred to as a simple mastectomy. As an aspect of this surgery lymph nodes, the lining of the chest muscles and the chest wall muscles may also be removed (Breast Cancer Treatment). A patient may also undergo a radical mastectomy which involves the removal of the cancerous breast along with the muscles underneath the breast and…… [Read More]

    Works Cited

    “About the IBCCP.” Retrieved February 20, 2010 from;

    Breast Cancer Treatment. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from;

    Madison County Health Department. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from;

    Molenaar, S. Mirjam AG Sprangers, Emiel JTh Rutgers, Ernest JT Luiten, Jan Mulder, Patrick MM Bossuyt, Jannes JE van Everdingen, Paul Oosterveld, and Hanneke CJM de Haes. Decision Support for Patients With Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Effects of an Interactive Breast Cancer CDROM on Treatment Decision, Satisfaction, and Quality of Life. Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol 19, No 6 (March 15), 2001: pp 1676-1687


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    Breast Cancer Pathophysiology Breast Cancer

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    Words: 1186 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3049216

    hile the incidence of carcinoma in situ has been increasing, the incidence of invasive breast cancer has remained fairly steady or even decreased slightly in the past 25 years, and the mortality rate has declined (Common types of invasive breast cancer, 2008, Eli Lilly). The earlier the detection of breast cancer, in its first stage, rather than the subsequent second, third, or fourth stages, the better the prognosis, regardless of its type or the age of the woman.

    Nursing interventions

    Nurses have an extremely important role to play as educators regarding breast cancer. First of all, they can help women have a realistic appraisal of their risk for the disease, based upon their family background, age, and lifestyle. Nurses can play a role in health promotion throughout a patient’s life by encouraging women to minimize or manage high-risk behaviors that contribute to the likelihood of contracting the disease, such as…… [Read More]

    Works Cited

    Breast cancer risk factors. (2008). Eli Lilly. Strength in knowing. Retrieved 8 Oct 2008

    Common types of invasive breast cancer. (2008). Eli Lilly. Strength in knowing. Retrieved 8 Oct 2008

    Genetics of breast cancer. (2008). Eli Lilly. Strength in knowing. Retrieved 8 Oct 2008

    Hormone-Receptor Status and Breast Cancer. (2008). Eli Lilly. Strength in knowing. Retrieved 8 Oct 2008


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    Breast Cancer Is a Type of Cancer

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    Words: 1087 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7388025

    Breast cancer is a type of cancer that originates from tissues in the breasts commonly from within the inner lining of milk ducts or alternatively lobules which supply milk to the ducts. Breast cancer can occur in both humans and other mammals but .The majority cases in humans occur in women, however breast cancer also occurs in men but in very rare instances. Those few cases of breast cancer in men occur to men in the ages between 60 and 70.from statistics white women are seen to be at a higher risk of the development of malignant breast cancer as compared to Hispanics or Asians. Breast cancer comes second when it comes to cause of deaths due to cancer in women aged between 45-50.there is an increase in the number of women who are diagnosed with cancer each year. If cancer is detected early enough than the chances of survival…… [Read More]


    MediLexicon International Ltd., (2012). What Is Breast Cancer? What Causes Breast

    Cancer? Retrieved march 30,2013 from  

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services;(2009). National cancer Institute. Breast cancer treatment. Retrieved March 30, 2013, from


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    Breast Cancer Treatments

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    Words: 1949 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59943167

    Breast Cancer Treatments

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer related deaths in females and its rising incidence makes it the second most common cause of deaths due to cancer in both genders. Its incidence increases with the following risk factors, age and first degree relatives affected with the illness. However, only five to ten percent of all breast cancers are hereditary. The BCA1, BCA 2 and the p 53 genes have proven to be the involved mutations. Other risk factors include prior breast cancer, a lengthy reproductive life, null parity, obesity, exogenous estrogen intake and an already existing proliferative fibrocystic change, especially atypical hyperplasia. (Abbas, 739-750)

    Treatment affectivity depends on several factors. The type of tumor determines its aggressiveness. A well defined tumor that is small in size, belonging to a less invasive variant, with estrogen and progesterone receptor sensitivity, generally responds well to treatment. However,…… [Read More]


    “Artist Supports Breast Cancer with Brass-Iere Arty Bra Raises Funds for Cancer,” The Queensland Times (Ipswich, Australia) 11 Oct. 2008: 1, Questia, Web, 29 June 2011.

    Breast cancer. Web .

    Harvey Richard A and Pamela C. Champe. Pharmacology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders Company. 744-808. 1995. Print.

    Kumar, Abbas., Fausto, Mitchel. Robbins Basic Pathology. India: Elsevier. 2007. 739-750. Print.


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    Breast Cancer Although it Remains True That

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    Words: 853 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82551397

    Breast Cancer

    Although it remains true that many Americans will die of acute illnesses, injuries, and accidents, it is at the same time becoming the case that more and more Americans are dying of chronic diseases such as cancer. In fact, cancer is expected in the future to be the leading cause of death in the United States, and any integrated plan for providing quality medical (including) nursing services in the future must focus on the treatment of such long-term illnesses.

    Among the most common forms of cancers, breast cancer cases are increasing the most quickly (Ku 2001), with the overall lifetime risk for American women having grown to one in eight (American Cancer Society, 2001). The reason for this increase is not understood, although a number of factors are known to come into play, and it may be possible that the increased risk is a combination of these various…… [Read More]


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    Breast Cancer Research &amp Awareness

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    Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66279658

    osenberg (ScienceDaily, 20010) suggests that oral contraceptives have evolved over a great many years and thus it is relevant to discuss once again the effects of oral contraceptives on women and their likelihood of getting breast cancer.

    Marchbanks et al. (2010) did conclude that either present or earlier use of oral contraceptives among women ages 35 to 64 did not increase their chances of getting breast cancer. Their research was adamant about the results, which said that oral contraceptive use does not increase the risk of breast cancer later on in life, when the chances of a women getting breast cancer is higher than when they were younger.

    What also needs to be considered is that the biology of white and black women may be significantly different and thus their bodies react differently to oral contraceptives. Because of this reason (as well as numerous others) and the fact that we…… [Read More]


    Marchbanks, P.A., McDonald, J.A., Wilson, H.G., Folger, S.G., Mandel, M.G., Daling,

    J.R., Bernstein, L., Malone., K.E., Ursin, G., Strom, B.L., Norman, S.A., and Weiss, L.K. “Oral contraceptives and the risk of breast cancer.” The New

    England journal of medicine, Vol. 346(26). Massachusetts Medical Society, 2002.

    Science Daily. “Oral contraceptive use associated with in crease risk of breast cancer in African-American women, study finds.” ScienceDaily, 2010. Retrieved 3 August


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    Breast Cancer Treatment and Screening

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    Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8670691

    ” (O’Malley, 190) The basic argument is that there is a certainty of a relationship between low-income and diminished health standards and treatment opportunities. Thus, the close association between low-income and the African-American race has a direct bearing on the severe disparity in racial vulnerability to breast cancer.

    As stated, this is also often because those in races tending toward lower income will often not receive proper screening and, if even possible, will be forced to undergo a treatment with its own health risks. Upon diagnosis, primary treatment is centered on chemotherapy, which uses traditional radiation methods to attack the cancer cells leached to one’s system. Additionally, where tumors are present in the breast, a surgical procedure called a mastectomy will be performed. The mastectomy is generally considered the first choice in attacking a tumor in the breast and is effective in cases where detection occurs early enough. It is…… [Read More]


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    Breast Cancer Outline

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    Words: 491 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19783267

    Breast Cancer

    Education as the key to awareness

    Cancer awareness information needs to be available to the general public

    Teaching children about breast cancer awareness

    Taking the matter to the streets — encouraging volunteers to interact with individuals in their neighborhoods with the purpose of informing them concerning the gravity of the situation

    Devising ways of providing proper educating the masses

    Academics are often available for such campaigns and can easily join one if they are provided with the chance to do so

    People tend to trust scholars more

    You are important!

    Learning to take rapid action

    Know the difference between normal and abnormal

    Doctors are your friends!

    Prevent serious problems

    Become accustomed to getting tested

    Acknowledge the fact that you are the most important person who can help you

    Care for your loved ones

    a. Age is a primary factor associated with breast cancer

    Encourage people close to you…… [Read More]


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    Breast Cancer Treatment Breast Cancer Is Not

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    Words: 5213 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35418352

    Breast Cancer Treatment

    Breast cancer is not an illness which can be cured with medication, it is a fatal disease. If not detected at an early stage it is incurable. A famous Chinese proverb states “We cannot control the wind, but we have the power to adjust its sails”; in the same manner, we cannot prevent breast cancer, but it is in our power to take appropriate measures to reduce its fatality. Annual mammography screening is one of the ways to detect this disease at an early stage. Doctors recommend women to get it done at least once in a year. Despite all this, African-American women do not give much attention to this. Cancer screening, spreading awareness about its side effects and health related issues are concepts alien to these women. Such an attitude constitutes a major obstacle in the way of dealing with this disease. This article attempts to…… [Read More]


    American Cancer Society. (2005). Facts and figures 2005. Atlanta: Author.

    American Cancer Society. (2005a). Breast cancer facts and figures 2005-2006. Atlanta, GA: Author.

    American Cancer Society. (2006a). Cancer facts and figures 2006. Atlanta, GA: Author.

    American Cancer Society. (2006b). Cancer prevention and early detection facts and figures 2006. Atlanta, GA: Author.


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    Breast Cancer Immunization

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    Words: 688 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94533482

    Breast Cancer Immunization

    The need for increased breast cancer screening: New Zealand

    The incidence of breast cancer in New Zealand is comparable to that of the rest of the developed world. After skin cancer, it is the most commonly-diagnosed and most common cause of death of women from cancer (Cunningham, Shaw & Sarfati 2010:2). In general, white, highly-educated women have a higher instance of breast cancer, and cancer risk increases with age. “Older age at first birth, lower parity, lack of breast feeding, younger age at menarche, older age at menopause and use of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) are all related to increases in breast cancer risk” (Cunningham, Shaw & Sarfati 2010:2).

    The need for early detection is widely acknowledged, but screening programs have come under increased scrutiny because of their high rates of false positives. A recent study found that while “43 deaths from breast cancer prevented for every…… [Read More]


    Breast self-exam. (2013). National Breast Cancer Organization. Retrieved:  breast-self-exam 

    Cunningham, Ruth, Shaw, Caroline & Sarfati, Diana. (2010). Ethnic and socioeconomic trends in breast cancer incidence in New Zealand. BMC Cancer, 10: 674. Retrieved


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    Breast Cancer

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    Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97621328

    women living in Western society will develop breast cancer during her lifetime. Germline mutations in BRCA1, a breast cancer tumor suppressor gene, are responsible for 50% of inherited breast cancers and 90% of combined inherited breast and ovarian cancers. The BRCA1 protein, BRCA1p, is involved in many important cellular pathways, including regulation of the cell cycle, DNA repair, transcription, and cell proliferation. It has been shown to bind over 20 different proteins. One such protein is

    the retinoblastoma protein, Rbp. Rbp is the product of another tumor suppressor gene, termed Rb. Like

    BRCA1p, Rbp is known to be involved in regulation of the cell cycle and cell proliferation.

    Regulation of cell proliferation and maintenance of genome stability are major functions of many tumor suppressors, including BRCA1p and Rbp. Rbp expression is known to decrease cell proliferation in a wide array of cells and tissues, consistent with its ubiquitous expression in…… [Read More]


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    Breast Cancer

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    Words: 782 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10498820

    Preventing and educing the isk of Pre-Menopausal Breast Cancer: A Proposal for Youth Education

    The incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer is on the rise. In recent years many different factors have been identified that contribute to this increased risk. Among the more common include an earlier onset of menses, obesity or overweight in youth which pre-dispositions a person to breast cancer, use of hormonal replacement therapy and long-term use of oral contraceptives (Claudio, 2000; Emanoil, 2000). Many studies have suggested that women are not taking adequate steps to assure early detection of breast cancer (Emanoil, 2000).

    The aim of this proposal is to develop a workshop geared toward educating young adults about the risk factors associated with pre-menopausal breast cancer and educate the community about the importance of early detection. The author hypothesizes that by addressing and educating youths, the incidence of breast cancer and deaths associated with breast cancer…… [Read More]


    Claudio, L. (2004). “Breast cancer takes center stage.” Environmental Health

    Perspectives, 112 (2):92

    Emanoil, P. (2000). “The key to public health is community.” Human Ecology, 28(2):16


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    Breast Cancer

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    Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55858243

    tragedy that, at such a young age, a woman such as Igna has to deal with the pain and emotional stress of breast cancer. It is important to explore whether early detection through genetic testing and counselling could have prevented the disease, or if these pre-emptive measures would be beneficial for her two young daughters.

    esearch into genetic factors involved in the occurrence of breast cancer have yielded some interesting and crucial findings. Studies have shown that mutations within certain genes have been linked to an increased risk of breast cancer. The effects of genetic mutations on the risk of breast cancer have been observed to be a function of a woman’s age, with the greatest ratio of age-specific risks found at young ages (TransMed Network, 1997). Specifically, two major genes linked to breast cancer susceptibility are located on chromosomes 17q and 13q, and their corresponding names are BCA1 and…… [Read More]


    Antoniou, A. et al. “Average Risks of Breast and Ovarian Cancer Associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutations Detected in Case Series Unselected for Family History: A Combined Analysis of 22 Studies.” American Journal of Human Genetics 72.5 (April, 2003).

    Geller, G., Tambor, E., Bernhardt, B., Fraser, G., Wissow, L. “Informed Consent for Enrolling Minors in Genetic Susceptibility Research: a Qualitative Study of At-Risk Children’s and Parents’ Views about Children’s Role in Decision Making.” Journal of Adolescent Health 32.4 (April, 2003): 260-71.

    TransMed Network, 1997.


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    Breast Cancer

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    Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75065848


    Following are copies of the articles consulted to create the poster. All were retrieved 25 October 2004 from The APA reference information has been placed at the head of each article, rather than the text as it appeared on the Web site as headlines and bylines.

    All spot art was obtained from a icrosoft Word program, Office 2000. The pictures are free clip art, not copyrighted.

    Exercise and Breast-Cancer Prevention: Study Finds It’s Never Too Late to Start, Activity Need Not Be Strenuous. (2003) Ascribe Higher Education News Service, September 9, 2003. Retrieved 25 October 2004 from

    SEATTLE, Sept. 9 (AScribe Newswire) — Increased physical activity, even when begun later in life, reduces overall breast-cancer risk by 20% among women at all levels of risk for the disease, according to a study led by researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Their findings appear in the Sept.…… [Read More]

    McTiernan and colleagues also found that the less a woman weighs, the more regular, moderate exercise appears to have a protective effect. Women of low to normal weight – and even those who were moderately overweight – who exercised the equivalent of 10 hours of walking each week experienced breast-cancer risk reductions of more than 30%. Breast-cancer risk didn’t budge, however, among women exercisers who were significantly overweight or obese.

    The weight status of the participants was determined by calculating their body-mass index, or BMI, a measure of body fat based on height and weight. The World Health Organization divides BMI into the following categories for both men and women: underweight (18.5 or lower), normal (18.5 to 24.9), overweight (25 to 29.9) and obese (30 or greater). A BMI calculator is available on the National Institutes of Health Web site at

    “This finding certainly shouldn’t be an exercise disincentive for obese women,” McTiernan cautioned. “There are many benefits for women of any weight to start exercising,


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    Breast Cancer Screening What Differences

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    Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68632489

    This kind of mammogram is called a selective or screening mammogram. This process is chosen according to the distinctiveness and preferences of women to find breast cancer when there are no obvious symptoms. Generally, a mammogram necessitates two radiographs or images of each breast. These images make it likely to identify possible tumors which cannot be felt through the skin or to find micro-calcifications that occasionally are a sign of the presence of breast cancer (What is a Mammogram, 2010).

    Mammograms can also be utilized to find breast cancer after having discovered a lump or other indication or symptom of the cancerous tumor. This kind of mammogram is called a diagnostic mammogram. Some indications of breast cancer are pain, skin thickening, nipple discharge or a change in breast size or shape. Nevertheless, these indications can also be a sign of a benign abnormal cellular growth. A diagnostic mammogram may also…… [Read More]


    Barke, Lora. (n.d.). Screening for Breast Cancer: A New Approach. Retrieved from

    Breast Cancer Screening. (2006), Retrieved from

    Breast Cancer Screening Modalities. (n.d.). Retrieved from

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    Breast Cancer Has Been Controlled Across Many

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    Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14779369

    Breast cancer has been controlled across many different variables, but it has rarely been researched specifically across socioeconomic status. The main focus is whether there is a higher incidence of breast cancer among people who are socioeconomically disadvantaged. Studies have shown that this group does have less access to health care (CDC, 2005), and even when people in this situation do have access they are less likely to actually utilize those services. Women are much less likely to get a breast cancer screening (mammogram) if they are economically disadvantaged. Thus, it is actually more difficult to conduct studies regarding this population. However, there is evidence to suggest, among the women from this classification, that there is actually a lower incidence of breast cancer than in women who are economically more affluent.

    There have been very few studies that have looked at the socioeconomically disadvantaged population and breast cancer, but some…… [Read More]


    CDC. (2005). Breast cancer screening and socioeconomic status — 35 metropolitan areas, 2000 and 2002. MMWR Weekly, 54(39), 981-985.

    Fugate, L. (2011). Richer women have more breast cancer. EmpowHer. cancer

    Wright, W. (2000). Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and breast cancer. Public Health Institute. Retrieved from


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    Breast Cancer the Amount of

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    Words: 947 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24415871

    It would be impossible for this review to be inclusive of the vast body of work that is available on the subject of breast cancer. It is useful, however, in helping medical personnel determine if the particular study cited in this work is one that might prove useful to the medical practitioner’s current problem, patient, or other focus in his or her work and continuing education.

    A journal article appearing in Family Planning Perspectives, by D. Hollander (2002), studies the risk factor for breast cancer for women who breast feed, versus those who do not breast feed. The article is brief, targeting the mother-to-be, or the new mother. The article does not give D. Hollander’s credentials for writing this article, but the writer’s credentials probably are along the lines of journalism, if a degree at all, because the article cites professional studies in a very limited way, using a simplistic…… [Read More]

    Reference List

    Hollander, D. “Breast Cancer Risk Is Reduced by 4% for Each Year of Breastfeeding.” International Family Planning Perspectives 28.4 (2002): 228. Questia. 12 Oct. 2008


    Kemeny, M. Margaret, and Paula Dranov. Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer: Beating the Odds. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1992. Questia. 12 Oct. 2008


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    Breast Cancer Detection Rural Women

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    Words: 2201 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10931212

    In this particular instance the place to start would be to launch an education program aimed at both patients and providers as to the importance of early detection screening for breast cancer. The goal would be to implement outreach strategies to improve access to screening for women who have rarely or never been screened. A second thing that would need to be done would be that of developing a transportation and child care program that could be utilized by these women in order to help them to seek services. The hope would be that by raising awareness about the importance of early detection and providing access to screening services that a larger percentage of rural women would obtain screening procedures.

    Another barrier that would need to be addressed would be that of insurance availability. For those women who have access to insurance the reason for not seeking screening may be…… [Read More]


    Environmental Intervention Planning 101. (2006). Retrieved April 8, 2010, from Cornell

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    Green, Lawrence W. And Mercer, Shawna L. (2002). Precede- Proceed Model. Retrieved April

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    Breast Cancer Diagnosis Among African American as Well as Caucasian Women

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    Words: 2001 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76369182

    breast Cancer diagnosis among African-American and Caucasian women?

    Breast cancer in the United States is the most widely spread cancer in ladies aged 45 through 64. The American Cancer Society in 2014 stated that, around 232,670 ladies were determined to have breast cancer, and nearly 40,000 of them died because of it. It has been affirmed that race plays a part in breast cancer survival and incidence. While White women will probably get breast cancer, African-American women will most probably die from it as compared to any other group (ACS, 2014). The five-year survival rate for breast cancer is 90% among White women and 79% for African-Americans (ACS, 2014). The expenses of breast cancer treatment are non-paltry and in this way its difference by race should be investigated. Over a five-year treatment plan, the societal expense of metastatic breast cancer is $98,571 or $12.2 billion per person annually (Means, ice,…… [Read More]


    American Cancer Society. (2014). Cancer Facts & Figures; American Cancer Society: Atlanta, GA, USA.

    Chlebowski, R., Chen, Z., Anderson, G., Rohan, T., Aragaki, A., Lane, D., . . . Prentice, R. (2016). Ethnicity and Breast Cancer: Factors Influencing Differences in Incidence and Outcome. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 439-448.

    CNN Money (2013).15% of Americans Living in Poverty. Available online:  .

    Danforth, D.N. Jr. (2013). Disparities in breast cancer outcomes between Caucasian and African-American women: a model for describing the relationship of biological and nonbiological factors. Breast Cancer Res.;15(3):208


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    Breast Cancer Into the Google

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    Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92183690

    The site urges people to stay away from being “cut” (having surgery) or “poisoned” (receiving chemotherapy). Instead, it takes readers on a nine-stage process to cleanse body and soul. Some of the steps include “Cleanup and detoxification,” “cancer recovery diet,” “psychotherapy,” “support group,” and “meditation/visualization.” Although I thought the prognosis this site offered was a bit cocky, as was the advice to avoid all traditional medications, many of the therapies suggested are no different than those a doctor or nurse in traditional care would prescribe. After all, who would object to his or her patient praying or meditating? Or joining a support group? Or eating a better diet for that matter?

    The next site I came upon, though, did strike me as invalid. The page is entitled simply, “Focus on Health,” but the subheading reads: “Cancer Cures: Natural, Safe, Effective & Scientifically Proven esults — Cure for Cancer!” The “cures”…… [Read More]


    BreastCancer.Org. (Accessed 4/19/05).[Online]. Available:  

    Breast Cancer Action. (Accessed 4/19/05). [Online]. Available:

    Curing Cancer: The Cancer Curing Protocol. (Accessed 4/19/05). [Online]. Available:

    Focus on Health. (Accessed 4/19/05. [Online]. Available:


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    Breast Cancer Survivors in This

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    Words: 1492 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58692201

    The subjects for the study were referred by local oncologists and to protect their rights they were provided with informed consent before participating. In other words, what would be studied and why was explained to them and they could then decide whether they wanted to participate or decline. There was no requirement to participate and patients could stop any time that they felt uncomfortable.

    It is vital that individuals who are participating in something like this are made to feel comfortable and that they are clear on the fact that they are capable of choosing to discontinue participation. It is very difficult to get honest and complete answers from people who feel as though they have been coerced into something. It is a much better choice when people are participating of their own free will and when they feel as though they are gaining something and helping others in the…… [Read More]


    Berger, a. (2003). Treating fatigue in cancer patients. Oncologist, 8 (Suppl 1), 10-14.

    Genes Come to the Fore in New Cancer Analysis. (2001). Science.


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    Breast Cancer Causal Factors

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    Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62600465

    Cancer risk factors associated with insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 levels in healthy women” (Barnes et al., 2009). The method for determining causality in this study was the statistical program . In this, a variety of statistical tests were run on the data, including t-test, Chi-Squared, Fisher’s exact test, and Pearson correlations. The study also sought to control for other factors. This is necessary because there are many different potential factors that can influence the development of disease. The control and study groups, and the statistical tests used, need to isolate the independent variable in order to demonstrate that it is a causal factor. This statistical work owes a lot of its underpinnings to Bradford Hill, but also the web of causation. The web of causation reflects that disease is related to many different factors. The factors may in turn influence each other. “All predisposing factors of any type and their…… [Read More]


    Barnes, B., Claude, J., Janys, D., Kinscherf, R., Schmidt, M., Slanger, T., Bonaterra, G. & Steindorf, K. (2009). Cancer risk factors associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-binding protein-3 levels in healthy women: Effect modification by menopausal status. Cancer Causes Control. Vol. 20 (2009) 1985-1996.

    Friedman, G. (1974). Prime of epidemiology. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved May 11, 2016 from


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    How Breast Cancer Changed Kobayashis Perspectives on Life

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    Words: 3861 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53634723

    How breast cancer changed Kobayashi’s perspectives on life and how the society has influenced on her perspectives about the disease?
    Breast cancer ranks among the top most common types of cancers among women all around the globe. In addition to being a dreaded disease, cancer, in general, attracts very culturally biased opinions. As a result, those who are diagnosed with cancer are ‘forced’ to manage the disease in silence, and in the most conservatives communities – cancer patients are secluded from the community and isolated even by family members (Bhatti, Salek & Finlay, 2011). In Japan, breast cancer is among the most common cancers among women and statistic show that breast cancer incidences are only increasing with time. Statistics show that more than 40000 women in Japan are diagnosed with breast cancer annually. Japan being a largely conservative society, there is a ‘fear’ of cancer and a stigma attached…… [Read More]


    Bhatti, Z., Salek, M., & Finlay, A. (2011). Chronic diseases influence major life changing decisions: a new domain in quality of life research. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 104(6), 241–250.

    Billig, M. (1996). “Protagoras and the origins of rhetoric,” in Arguing and thinking: A rhetorical view of social psychology. Cambridge University Press.

    Blazer, D. G., & Hernandez, L. M. (Eds.). (2006). Genes, behavior, and the social environment: Moving beyond the nature/nurture debate. National Academies Press.

    Bruce, A., Beuthin, R., Sheilds, L., Molzahn, A., & Schick-Makaroff, K. (2016). Narrative research evolving: Evolving through narrative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 15(1), 1609406916659292.

    Daher, M. (2012). Cultural beliefs and values in cancer patients. Annals of oncology, 23(suppl_3), 66-69.

    Haste, H. (1994). The sexual metaphor: Men, women, and the thinking that makes the difference.

    Leach, J. (2000). “Rhetorical Analysis,” in MW Bauer & G. Gaskell (Eds.) Qualitative researching with text, image and sound: A practical handbook (pp. 207-226).

    Matsuyama, R. K., Grange, C., Lyckholm, L. J., Utsey, S. O., & Smith, T. J. (2007). Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients. Journal of the National Medical Association, 99(10), 1113.


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    Breast Cancer Detection Methods

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    Words: 934 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45945883


    The Agency for Healthcare esearch and Quality has issued its recommendations for breast cancer screening. In this article, they make a few different recommendations. First, they recommend screening for women 50-74 years. They note that women under 50 should make the choice for themselves as to whether or not they wish to begin screening. They note that there is little evidence to support screening age 75 onward. This body, however, recommends against teaching breast self-examination.

    Also noted is that “the current evidence is insufficient to assess the additional benefits and harms of clinical breast examination beyond mammography. They also find that there is insufficient evidence of incremental benefits for the use of digital mammography or MI. The lack of evidence does not mean that these things are ineffective or do not provide value, just that there is no evidence that they do, which is different.

    The most controversial aspect…… [Read More]


    Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2009). U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: Screening for breast cancer. Retrieved from

    Dundar, P., Ozmen, D., Ozturk, B., Haspolat, G., Akydiz, F., Coban, S. & Cakiroglu, G. (2006). The knowledge and attitudes of breast self-examination and mammography in a group of women in a rural area in Western Turkey. BioMedCentral. Retrieved April 19, 2016 from

    Gwarzo, U., Sabitu, K, & Idris, S. (2009). Knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among female undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Northwestern Nigeia. Annals of African Medicine. Vol. 8 (1) 55-58.

    Rosotowich, V. (2006). Breast self-examination. SOGC Committee Opinion. Retrieved April 19, 2016 from


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    Breast Cancer Searching for the Mean Genes

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    Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81229789

    cancer genes that are associated with breast cancer. Scientists have known for years that the most common breast cancer genes are BRCA1 AND BRCA2, but there are many more than those two genes that scientists now much cope with. Another aspect of the focus is on whether or not to tell a woman that she has genes that might lead to breast cancer; the ethical questions are serious and this is complicated by the fact that ovarian cancer and breast cancer “share genetic risk factors.”

    The overall problem is breast cancer, but within the problem of breast cancer is determining which genes are likely to cause tumors and which are present but do not necessarily lead to breast cancer. The identification of BRCA1 and BRCA2 was thought to hold the keys to identifying those women who had those genes as possible breast cancer victims. But with the “rapid expansion of…… [Read More]

    Works Cited

    Kean, S. (2014). The ‘Other’ Breast Cancer Genes. Science, Vol. 343. Retrieved April 7, 2014,

    from  .


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    Women’s Issues Breast Cancer Awareness

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    Words: 1292 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94859216

    Screening for breast cancer before there are symptoms is very important. Screening helps doctors find and treat cancer in its early stages. Treatment is more likely to be successful when the cancer is detected early. A doctor may suggest any of the following screening tests for breast cancer: screening mammogram, clinical breast exam, beast self-exam (Stoppler, 2009).

    Mammograms can often show a breast lump before it can even be felt. A mammogram is a picture of the breast that is made with an x-ray. It can also show a cluster of tiny deposits of calcium. These deposits are known as micro calcifications. Lumps can be from cancer, precancerous cells, or a host of other conditions. Further tests may be needed to find out if abnormal cells are present. Women in their 40s and older should have mammograms every 1 to 2 years (Stoppler, 2009).

    During a clinical breast exam the…… [Read More]


    Cancer Gap Between Whites, Blacks May Be Biological in Part. (2009). Retrieved August 11,

    2009, from

    Carcinogen Found in KFC’s New Grilled Chicken. (2009). Retrieved August 13, 2009, from News and Media Center Web site:

    National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. (2008). Retrieved August 11, 2009, from American


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    New Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines

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    Words: 2607 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97455247

    Dr. obb-Nicholson’s data best supports the scenario that more incidents of breast cancer will be discovered due to the reduced number of screenings that the new guidelines suggest. According to the numbers she gives, the mortality rate for breast cancer decreases every year and this decrease can be attributed to the previous screening guidelines. She writes that the USPSTF has based the new guidelines on statistics rather than clinical data and the message that they are conveying to the public is that the number of deaths that regular screenings at beginning at the age of forty is too small to keep the guidelines as they were previously. (6)

    The best approach would be to keep the guidelines the way they were before the change. There was not enough clinical data to support the change in guidelines. Also, because the mortality rate for breast cancer has steadily declined with women following…… [Read More]

    References Cited

    1. Cancer Weekly. Concerned Federal Screening Mammography Guidelines to Limit Access for Younger Women. Susan G. Komen for the Cure. 2010: 1665.

    2. Stick with Older Mammography Recommendations. Stanford Experts Say. March 3, 2010 (Press Release from Stanford Hospital & Clinics).

    3. Hoppel, Ann M. To screen, and when to screen: the mammography age divide. Clinician Reviews. 2009: 19.12.

    4. Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. USP-STF: no routine mammography for women younger than 50 years. 2010; 23.2, p.66.


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    Genetic Pathway of Breast Cancer

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    Words: 2282 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53395187

    , 2006). He visualized and described the malignancy process. He suggested that early that “cells of tumors with unlimited growth” would develop with the elimination of chromosomes, which inhibit the growth. The multiple genetic alterations in these inhibiting chromosomes are today known as TSGs. The theory supposes that cancer arises from functional defect or absence of one or more TSGs. Clinical trials of TSG gene replacement therapy for breast cancer include the viral wild-type p53, Rb, and mda7. Molecular chemotherapy involves the introduction of suicide genes. The concept evolved from the assumption that cancer cells could be made more sensitive to chemotherapeutics or toxins by introducing “suicide genes.” It was a concept initiated in the late 80s. Suicide gene therapy is categorized into toxin gene therapy and enzyme-activating pro-drug therapy. Suicide gene therapy is also called gene-directed enzyme pro-drug therapy or GDEPT. GDEPT treatment consists of the delivery of the…… [Read More]


    Abaan, O. D and Criss, Wayne E (2002). Gene therapy in human breast cancer. 32

    (2002): 283-291 Turkey Journal of Medical Science: Tubitak. Retrieved on April 15,

    2010 from

    Lowery, A.J., et al. (2009). MicroRNA signatures predict oestrogen receptor,


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    Overcoming Breast Cancer the Definition of Courage

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    Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60457092

    True Courage; Facing Breast Cancer

    When we think of courage it is easy to look at heroes that are portrayed in the media; individuals who may be seen as an inspiration because they have faced difficult situations, often where there is a significant amount of danger, putting the needs of others before their own safety. There is little doubt that this is courage, but it is only one form of courage. If courage is defined as facing fears and have the resolution to overcoming difficulties there are many types of courage that may go unnoticed as they do not attack headline news or gossip. It can take courage to stand up to bullies, especially if they are larger or more powerful than yourself, to stand up for what you believe in even if others disagree and to overcome a phobia. These all require courage, as they involve facing a fear…… [Read More]


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    Nurses Perceptions About Breast Cancer

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    Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64847904

    The authors point out that nurses have the ability to influence patient expectations of care if they are educated properly. However the article also suggests that more attention needs to be paid to educating nurses regarding the psychological impact a diagnosis with breast cancer may have. These findings apply to any situation where a nurse is caring for patients with potentially life threatening illness. The article also suggests that further research should be conducted to determine the extent to which nurse’s perceptions of patient outcome may impact a patient’s psychological state and ability to remain optimistic throughout therapy.

    The article can be used as the impetus necessary to incorporate more psychosocial coursework in nursing education.


    Powe, B.D., Underwood, S., Canales, M. & Finnie, . (2005, Jun). “Perceptions about breast cancer among college students: implications for nursing education.” Journal Nursing Education, 44(6):…… [Read More]


    Powe, B.D., Underwood, S., Canales, M. & Finnie, R. (2005, Jun). “Perceptions about breast cancer among college students: implications for nursing education.” Journal Nursing Education, 44(6): 257-65

    Breast Cancer

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    Against Odds Australian Women’s Experiences Recovery Breast

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    Words: 2058 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54043107

    Against Odds: Australian Women’s Experiences ecovery Breast Cancer

    Elmir, , Jackson, D, Beale, B., & Schmied, V 2009. Against all odds: Australian women’s experiences of recovery from breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19, pp.2531-2538.

    Elmir, Jackson, Beale & Schmied (2009, p.2531) investigates the younger female’s experiences following breast cancer-linked breast surgery. The purpose of the study was to create an understanding of the experiences of women who under-go breast cancer surgeries. Elmir et al. (2009, p.2533) study aimed at contributing to the base of knowledge for clinicians practicing in the field of breast cancer. The underlying principle behind the study carried out by Elmir and associates is the prevalence of breast cancer among younger women and inadequate studies concerning recuperating from breast cancer-linked surgery.

    McMurray & Clendon (2010, p. 241) assert that breast cancer is affecting younger women between 20 and 40 years given the better surveillance and earlier…… [Read More]


    Willig, C 2013. Introducing qualitative research in psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

    Pequegnat, W., & Stover, E 2010. How to write a successful research grant application: A guide for social and behavioral scientists. New York: Springer.

    McMurray, A., & Clendon 2010. Community health and wellness: Primary health care in practice. Australia: Elsevier Australia.

    Mott, D 2008. Emergency room use: A phenomenological study of community-based healthcare. Texas: ProQuest.

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    Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

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    Words: 1132 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95494676

    Stereotactic Breast Biopsy

    Breast cancer is a very common disease, and is the most common type of cancer in women, although it is not unheard of for a man to have breast cancer. About one women in eight (12% of all women) will develop breast cancer at some time in her life. Approximately 50,000 women die from breast cancer every year. Early detection is an important factor in the successful treatment of breast cancer. Utilizing monthly self breast exams, periodic professional exams, and mammography breast cancer can usually be detected early. With early detection, breast cancer can be treated more effectively and patient outcomes improve. Mammograms are an essential part of this screening process. Although there is some controversy, the generally accepted recommendations for mammogram include a screening mammogram at age 35, annual mammograms every one or two years from age 40-50, and an annual mammogram after age 50. The…… [Read More]


    Robert L. Howisey, Marita B. Acheson, Ronald K. Rowbotham and Alan Morgan, A Comparison of Medicare Reimbursement and Results for Various Imaging-guided Breast Biopsy Techniques American Journal of Surgery, May 1997 395-398

    International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification


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    Medical Advances in Cancer

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    Words: 553 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44527155

    Medical Advances in Cancer Treatment Research

    This paper discusses the medical advances in cancer treatment research. The writer explores several treatment options and compares them to treatment options of the past. There were two sources used to complete this paper.

    There was a time when a diagnosis of cancer meant a death sentence. The word still strikes a chord of fear among the millions each year who are told they have it, but in recent years there have been many advances in medical science that allow many who would have died from the disease to live long and full lives. There are more cancer survivors now than ever before and treatment options continue to be made available.

    In the past there were only two options for the treatment of cancer. One could have surgery and one could be given a course of radiation treatments. The surgery was for the purpose…… [Read More]

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    Diagnosis of Cancer There Is

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    Words: 1108 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77105913

    He may also be humiliated by his having the disease or may be avoided by others who do not know how to approach the patient or are discomfited by doing so, particularly since cancer indicates mortality and mortality is one aspect of life’s facts that individuals generally like to avoid.

    Other feelings of inferiority and shame are caused by loss of autonomy and independence, vulnerability, and mutilation and most frightening of all is the fear of death. Clinical depression can easily become an outcome.

    Some may also experience psychiatric disorder as a result, with the Psychological Collaborative Oncology Group finding that 47% of patients who had been diagnosed with cancer fell into psychiatric disorder with two thirds having depressed or anxious moods whilst one third experienced major depression, delirium, anxiety disorder, or some other major mental illness (Sandoval-Cros, 1999)

    Methods to lessen physical and psychological effects.

    The three most common…… [Read More]


    American Cancer Society Staging

    MD Anderson Cancer Center: Diagnostic tests…/diagnostic-tests/index.html Chemotherapy and cancer treatment, coping with side effects

    Sandoval-Cros CJ. (1999) Common psychological problems in the cancer patient Moffitt Cancer Center

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    Nutrition & Cancer Rates

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    Words: 3994 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73183034

    In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:

    Food Additives — chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.

    Vitamin E — Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.

    Selenium…… [Read More]


    American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.

    Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.

    Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at:

    Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.

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    Aetiology and Management of Cancer

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    Words: 4918 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77784533

    This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).

    It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.

    The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…… [Read More]


    Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from

    Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.

    Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.

    McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.

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    Diet and Cancer

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    Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42988149

    diet and cancer. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.

    Food, Diet and Cancer

    Diet is fuel for our body. On the same account a balanced nutritious intake is what a human body needs more than anything. Hence food is one of the most cardinal factors that determine the quality of our healthy as well as the longevity of our lives. Knowing which food to eat in what quantity and how food helps us in building our defence mechanisms is essential.

    This argumentative essay based on thorough analysis as well as extensive research revolves around and proves the following thesis statement:

    There is a correlation between diet and cancer

    Correlation between milk as well as other dairy products and Cancer

    There are several forms of cancer killing thousands of people worldwide. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer affecting women under the age of 50…… [Read More]

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    Got breast cancer. Available at: (March 20,2003)

    Cancer fighters for food. Available at: (March 20,2003)

    Fried Food Link to Some Cancers Disputed. Available at: (March 20,2003)

    Study doubts acrylamide in food causes cancer. Available at (March 20,2003)

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    Recurrence of Cancer Psychosocial Impact

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    Words: 1578 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10493753

    (2009, March). omen’s Health Law eekly, 34. Retrieved March 1, 2009 from Research Library database. (Document ID: 1651848781).

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    Uchitomi. (2005). Psychiatric disorders following first breast cancer recurrence:

    Prevalence, associated factors and relationship to quality of life. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(6), 302-9. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest

    Medical Library database. (Document ID: 876421851).

    Quinlin, Patrick. (2001). Beating cancer with nutrition. Nutrition Times Press.

    Pengelly, Michele & Diana Purnell. (2009). An audit of levels of psychological support referrals for cancer patients. Cancer Nursing Practice,…… [Read More]

    Works Cited

    Agnew, Thelma. (2009). Acting with confidence. Cancer Nursing Practice, 8(1), 18-20.

    Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ProQuest Health and Medical Complete database. (Document ID: 1651343111).

    Baker, Maggie Koerth-Baker. (2008). The power of positive thinking: Truth or myth?

    Special to LiveScience. Retrieved March 1, 2009.

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    Mechanisms of Cancer the Cancer

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    Words: 1101 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84221798

    This then leads to the activation of a number of genes whose products trigger cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair” (Lakin 1999, p. 7644).

    In research led by Hussain, he investigated the targets of free radicals, which are DNA, proteins, NA, and lipids. He noted that, “mutations in cancer-related genes or post-translational modifications of proteins by nitration, nitrosation, phosphorylation, acetylation or polyADP-ribosylation-by free radiacals or lipid peroxidation byproducts…are some of the key events that can increase the cancer risk” (Hussain 2003, p. 276). Furthermore, changes in DNA occur when the person has been exposed to high levels of nitric oxide or NO. p53 plays a role in that it acts as a mediator to stress but NO “causes p53 accumulation and post-translational modifications that inhibit cellular growth” (Hussain 2003, p. 278). His research has revealed that when exposed to NO during chronic inflammation sans wild-type p53, there might be increased…… [Read More]


    American Cancer Society (n.d.) Cancer Facts & Figures 2010, [online] Available at: [Accessed: April 19, 2011].

    American Cancer Society (n.d.) What Causes Cancer?, [online] Available at: [Accessed: April 19, 2011].

    Croce, C. (2008) Oncogenes and Cancer, N Engl J. Med, 358, p. 502-511.

    Hasty, P. (2005) the impact of DNA damage, genetic mutation and cellular responses on cancer prevention, longevity and aging: observations in humans and mice, Mech Ageing Dev, 126(1), p.71-77.

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    Treatment and Management of Cancer Diagnosis Obligations

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    Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16892447

    Treatment and Management of Cancer

    Cancer Diagnosis

    Obligations of community health nurse in providing healthcare

    Cancer Diagnosis

    The high demand for healthcare services, especially to those managing dreadful illnesses such as cancer, there is a dire need to understand the health promotion strategies and also ensure quality lives. Here, is a discussion assisting to analyze how best to improve health and better management of dreaded conditions like diseases such as cancer. Those affected will learn to adopt the right measures that will help to improve functional abilities, and what to practice in case self-care is not an option. The mandate of community health nurses will be scrutinized, to help acquire general knowledge on efficient management of diseases.

    Cancer is a disease, which has characteristics of growths that cannot be controlled, and also the abnormality of how rapidly the cells are spread to other organs. Cancers vary in their areas of…… [Read More]

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    Dealing With Side Effects of Treatment and Diagnosis Approach to Care of Cancer

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    Words: 1816 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90758422

    Care of Cancer

    Cancer has overtaken HIV / AIDS and malaria to top the list of headaches for medical departments and policy makers alike. In 2012, cancer claimed a massive 8.2 million lives, with breast, colorectal, stomach, lung, and liver cancers accounting for more than three-quarters of these. Alcohol and tobacco use, lack of physical activity, low vegetable and fruit intake, and high body mass index have been found to be responsible for a significant 30% of cancer deaths, with tobacco use causing 70% of the 1.59 million global lung cancer deaths reported in 2012. Metastasis, the process occasioned or characterized by unusual growth of abnormal cells, which end up invading adjacent parts, eventually extending to neighboring organs, is the mainspring of death from cancer. The World Health Organization projects that annual cancer cases will hit 22 million by the year 2020, but maintains that mortality can be reduced if…… [Read More]


    Epstein, J.B., Thariat, J., Bensadoun, R.J., Barasch, A., Murphy, B.A., Kolnick, L., Popplewell, L. & Maghami, E. (2012). Oral Complications of Cancer and Cancer Therapy: from Cancer Treatment to Survivorship. CA Cancer J. Clin, 62(6), 400-422.

    Kelvin, J.F. & Tyson, L. (2010). 100 Questions and Answers about Cancer Symptoms and Cancer Treatment Side Effects (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

    NCI. (n.d.). Cancer Staging. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 8 July 2014 from

    Redd, W.H., Montgomery, G.H. & DuHamel, K.N. (2001). Behavioral Interventions for Cancer Treatment Side Effects. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 93(11), 810-823.

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    Thromboembolism Venous Thromboembolism Cancer Care

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    Words: 1776 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15623853


    Dirix LY,

    Salgado R,

    Weytjens R,

    Colpaert C,

    enoy I,

    Huget P, van Dam P,

    Prove a,

    Lemmens J,

    Vermeulen P. (2002), ‘Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumor volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic reast Cancer’, ritish Journal of Cancer,

    John a Heit, (Sep 2005), “Cancer and Venous Thromboembolism: Scope of the Problem’, Cancer Control, Vol! 2, Supplement 1.

    Diana M. eck, (Oct 2006), ‘Venous Thromboembolism: Prophylaxis: Implications for Medical Surgical Nurses,”

    MEDSURG Nursing — October 2006 — Vol. 15/No. 5, Available online at,

    Race, Tara Kay SN, RN, CCRN; Collier, Paul E. MD, (July-Sep 2007), ‘The Hidden Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis — the Need for Risk Factor Assessment: Case Reviews.’, Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 30(3):245-254

    Susan egelman MD, ‘Venous Thromboembolism’,…… [Read More]


    MF Scully (2005), ‘Clinical Guide Cancer and Thrombosis’, retrieved Feb 28th 2008, at

    Alexander G. Turpie, (2002) ‘ABC of Antithrombotic Therapy’, British Medical Journal, available at


    Dirix LY,

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    Living With Incurable Cancer at the End

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    Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3990699

    Living With Incurable Cancer at the End of Life-Patients’ Perceptions on Quality of Life

    Johansson, Christina Melin RN, Phd-student; Axelsson, Bertil MD, PhD; Danielson, Ella RN, PhD

    This article is either a qualitative or a quantitative research study. Identify which, and then complete the table below where applicable. Write no more than three sentences in each cell of the table. The study may not contain all of the elements listed, or the element may be necessary and is not addressed. If the study does not address one of these elements and it is not necessary, simply indicate as N/A in the appropriate box. If the element is not adequately discussed, explain based on your readings and your understanding of the research study.



    Research question

    How do patients describe their perceptions of the quality of life (QoL) in incurable cancer at the end of life?



    Patients with…… [Read More]

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    Dietary Fats and Its Links With Cancer

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    Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66235136

    Dietary Fibers on the Risk of Developing Cancer

    Cancer is a genetic and complex disease caused mainly due to environmental elements. Carcinogen is a cancer agent that and can be present in water, food, air and in sunlight and chemicals as well. Almost ninety percent of the cancer occurs in epithelia because the epithelia cells cover the human’s skin, lines the alimentary and respiratory tracts, and also metabolize ingested carcinogens. Currently, the causes of diseases are changing and infection can cause problems like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. There were more than ten million cancer cases in 1996 globally while six million people died from cancer. Unhealthy lifestyle like smoking cigarettes and adopting modern diet that includes fiber content and high fat is causing increased incidences of cancer in humans (Alison).

    Development of Cancer

    Cancer cells are different from normal cells and they continue to grow other abnormal cells in the…… [Read More]


    ACS. “Genes and Cancer.” American Cancer Society (2014).

    — . “Wilms Tumor .” American Cancer Society (2015).

    Alison, Malcolm R. “Cancer.” NCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES (2001): 1.


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    Effects of Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

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    Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41760721

    Working Night Shift and Getting Cancer

    The increasing rate of women acquiring breast cancer disease has been an alarming issue in the medical history of cancer prevention and studies. The many research and studies conducted by medical professionals on breast cancer disease have found a number of cancer-causing habits and lifestyles. Among those that have been examined and found as risk factors of breast cancer on women is night-shift work.

    Regularly working in night shift as a health-hazardous cause of breast cancer has been investigated by several studies of different cancer research institutions. Almost all studies were carried out based from employment histories of women diagnosed of breast cancer. In a population-based study conducted by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, it was found that women who regularly work at night are at 60% risk of developing breast cancer. The most significant risk factor to this is the exposure to bright…… [Read More]


    Davis, Jeanie Lerche. (2001). Breast Cancer and the Night Shift: Is There a Link?

    Retrieved December 08, 2003, from Web MD Health.

    Web site:

    DeNoon, Daniel. (2003). Hormone Melatonin Slows Breast Cancer.

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    Missed Breast Carcinomas

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    Words: 3074 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26919318

    Missed reast Carcinomas

    Mammography is a particular type of imaging which use an x-ray system, which has a low-dose for the purpose of detecting breast cancer at a very early stage. ut even with the help of Mammography, in 10-30% cases of breast cancers would be missed. y way of this paper an attempt has been made to understand the factors, which cause for missed breast cancers, and discuss ways to reduce the false negative rate of mammography.

    The false negative rate of mammography was around 8-10% according to the data of the reast Cancer Detection Demonstration project. Another study was of the opinion that the rate of missed breast cancers with regard to mammography was very high as 35%. (Harvey, Fajardo, Lnnis, 1993) In another study of 10 radiologists the true cases of cancers were considered to be in 74-96% cases which were understood after analyzing 150 mammograms. (Elmore,…… [Read More]


    Harvey J.A, Fajardo L.L, Lnnis C.A. (1993) Preview mammograms on patients with impalpable with breast carcinomas: retrospective vs. blind interpretation, AJR Am J, Roentegenol, 161:1167, 1172

    Elmore JG, Wells C.K, Lee C.H, et al. (1994) Variability in Radiologists’ interpretation of mammograms. N Engl J. Med, 331: 1493-1499

    Patel MR, Whitman GJ (1998) Negative mammograms in symptomatic patients with breast cancer. Acad Radiol, 5:26-33

    Burrel HC, Sibbering DM, Wilson AR, et al. (1996) Screening interval breast cancers: mammographic features and prognosis factors. Radiology, 199: 811-817

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    Nursing and Midwifery Cancer Scenario

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    Words: 2821 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28937469

    treatment using the drug, tamoxifen, and higher mortality rates in females aged over forty years. The peer-reviewed papers employed for this study reveal a dynamic scrutiny of the aforementioned link. Quantitative as well as qualitative research works have been utilized, with a comparison and contrast made of the most apt methodology employed by the researchers. The end goal is ascertaining whether or not it is a risky decision to not adhere to tamoxifen treatment and how much information patients possess with regard to the drug and its effects.

    The esearch Question and its Importance

    After the diagnosis of her health condition, Ms. Jones is prescribed tamoxifen as medication. For an entire year, Ms. Jones fails to consume this prescribed drug. Upon revisiting the hospital after a year of not complying with this recommended treatment plan, she is told that her cancer has reappeared and is much more lethal than before.…… [Read More]


    ANS (2010) Cancer Facts And Figures 2010. American Cancer Society.

    Banerjee, S., Saxena, N., Sengupta, K. and Banerjee, S. K. (2003) 17 alpha-estradiol-induced VEGF-A expression in rat pituitary tumor cells is mediated through ER independent but PI3K-Akt dependent signaling pathway. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.300, 209-215.

    Banning M (2012). Adherence to adjuvant therapy in post-menopausal breast cancer patients: a review cc_1295 1.10

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    New Ways to Treat Cancer

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    Words: 1980 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20394557

    neoplasm: “abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should” (“NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms,” 2016)

    benign: noncancerous (“NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms,” 2016)

    malignant: cancerous (“NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms,” 2016)

    carcinoma: “Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs,” (“NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms,” 2016)

    sarcoma: “A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue” (“NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms,” 2016)

    anaplasia: Features of cells which indicate malignancy (“Anaplasia,” 2016).

    Q2. Identify the correct name for both benign and malignant tumors in the following locations:

    Benign Tumors/Malignant Tumors

    Pancreas: Adenoma / Adenocarcinoma (“Tumors by name,” 2016)

    Fat: Lipoma / Liposarcoma (“Tumors by name,” 2016)

    Bone: Osteoma / Osteosarcoma (“Tumors…… [Read More]


    About immunotherapy. (2016). Chemocare. Retrieved from:

    Anaplasia. (2016). USC. Retrieved from:

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    Circle of Life Framework in Breast Health

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    Words: 1427 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41464869

    Circle of Life Framework in Breast Health Education

    Article Critique Analysis: Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen’s Breast Health Education, by E. Haozous, V. Eschiti, and J. Lauderdale

    The journal article, “Use of the Talking Circle for Comanche omen’s Breast Health Education” by E. Haozous et. al. (2010), promotion of education on breast health was explored using a specific and unique tradition as the framework of the study. This tradition, called the Circle of Life (COL), is an “intertribal cancer prevention program focused on breast health education” and is specifically implemented among American Indian (AI) women (378). Using the COL as framework, the authors aimed to achieve “cultural congruency” in exploring, discovering, and identifying the different dimensions concerning breast health education and promotion effectiveness in the context of AI women’s culture — specifically, Comanche women (378). Harmonized understanding of the Comanche community, female and health cultures led to…… [Read More]

    Work cited:

    Haozous, E., V. Eschiti, and J. Lauderdale. (2010). “Use of Talking Circle for Comanche Women’s Breast Health Education.” Journal of Transcultural Nursing, Vol. 21, No. 377.

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    Anti Cancer Diet Research Has

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    Words: 973 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70163356

    [Donaldson S, 2004] A diet rich in refined sugar creates a high glycemic load. The present culture of eating packaged and fast foods on a regular basis implies the consumption of high levels of refined sugar in our diet. This results in induced dysregulation of glucose metabolism, which is reported as a high risk factor for cancer. [Donaldson S, 2004] A recent European study by Dr. Par Stattin (2007) has confirmed abnormal glucose metabolism as a high risk factor for cancer. Red meat is associated with cancer. Many recent studies such as Bingham SA (2002) and Norat T. (2002) have attested this correlation between red meat consumption and cancer.

    In conclusion we can say that the chemopreventive effects of a diet comprising of vegetables and fruits is due to the synergestic effects of many plant-based nutrients. While most of the phytochemicals act as effective antioxidants, some nutrients such…… [Read More]

    9. Padayatty SJ, Sun H & Wang Y (2004), ‘Vitamin C pharmacokinetics: implications for oral and intravenous use’, Ann Intern Med 2004, 140:533-537

    10. Butt M.S & Sultan MT, (2009), ‘Green tea: nature’s defense against malignancies’, Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2009 49(5): 463-73

    11. OSU, ‘Cruciferous Vegetables’, Accessed Apr 27th 2009, Available at,

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    Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

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    Words: 2352 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

    Breast Cancer

    How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

    Director of the National Cancer Institute

    How Genes Influence Breast Cancer

    Many environmental factors can affect a person’s risk of breast cancer, but they are not the only issues to consider. Genetics also play a strong role in whether a person develops breast cancer or avoids it. A strong family history of the disease can predispose a person to breast cancer, but it is not a guarantee that the person will acquire the disease. Conversely, people with no family history have also contracted breast cancer, so genetics are not the only issue. They are merely a part of the puzzle. The research here indicates that genetics may be a larger part of the puzzle than first thought, however, and proposes recommendations to spend more time and financial resources on discovering the significance of genes and how they influence breast cancer. Recommendations for action…… [Read More]

    Works Cited

    Cao, Qiang, Qin, Chao, Meng, Xiaoxin, Ju, Xiaobing, Ding, Qi, Wang, Weilin, Zhu, Jian, Wang, Wei, Li, Pu, Jiawei, Chen, Zhang, Zhengdong, and Yin, Changjun. Genetic Polymorphisms in APE1 Are Associated With Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 50: 863-870. 2011. Print.

    Chang-Claude, Jenny, Popanda, Odilia, Tan, Xiang-Lin, Kropp, Silke, Helmbold, Irmgard, von Fournier, Dietrick, Haase, Wulf, Sautter-Bihl, Marie Luise, Wenz, Frederik, Schmezer, Peter, and Ambrosone, Christine B. Association between Polymorphisms in the DNA Repair Genes, XRCC1, APE1, and XPD and Acute Side Effects of Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients. Clinical Cancer Research, 11: 4802-4809. 2005. Print.

    Kang, Huafeng, Dai, Zhijun, Ma, Xiaobin, Ma, Li, Jin, Yaofeng, Liua, Xiaoxu, and Wang, Xijing. A genetic variant in the promoter of APE1 gene (?656 TNG) is associated with breast cancer risk and progression in a Chinese population. Gene, 531: 97-100. 2013. Print.

    Poletto, Mattia, Di Loreto, Carla, Marasco, Daniela, Poletto, Elena, Puglisi, Fabio, Damante, Giuseppe, and Tell, Gianluca. Acetylation on critical lysine residues of Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1(APE1) in triple negative breast cancers. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 424. 2012. Print.

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    Cellular Proliferation Cancer One-60-Year-Old Might

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    Words: 1326 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23453679

    Immunotherapists can provide sensitive and accurate cancer diagnostic tools for the successful treatment of the disease and to stop it well in its tracks (, 2009). The outward advantages of immunotherapy are as follows: certain drugs have fewer side effects and offer patients a higher quality of life, bolstered anti-cancer effectiveness and rates of survival, benefits are often reaped quickly for the patient ( The disadvantages are as follows: some varieties of this treatment have serious side effects, are very expensive and occasionally offer just a short-term efficacy (

    5. An overexpression of proto-oncogenes can cause cancer as mutated forms of these genes can promote unrestrained cell proliferation: “oncogenes actively promote proliferation (analogous to the gas pedal of the cell cycle). Mutations that convert proto-oncogenes to oncogenes typically increase the activity” (Hyland). An underexpression of tumor suppressor genes can also put an individual in a precarious situation. Tumor suppressor genes…… [Read More]

    References (n.d.). Understanding Cancer Series. Retrieved from (n.d.). Tumor Markers. Retrieved from (n.d.). Tumor Markers. Retrieved from (n.d.). Cancer and the Immune System: Advantages of Cancer Immunotherapy. Retrieved from

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    Care of Cancer In the Past Few

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    Words: 1961 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15672668

    Care of Cancer:

    In the past few years, cancer has developed to become one of the major leading causes of deaths across the globe. The disease can be described as the uncontrolled growth or development of abnormal cells in the body even as cancerous cells are also known as malignant cells. Since cells are the building blocks of humans and other living things, cancer develops out of the normal cells within the body. Generally, the normal cells multiply when needed by the body and die when the body does not need them. When the growth of the cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly, cancer appears to occur. Nonetheless, cancer also appears to happen when cells in the body forget how to die.

    Causes of Cancer:

    There are various kinds of cancer because the disease can develop in nearly every tissue or organ like…… [Read More]


    Barraclough, J. (2002). Integrated Cancer Care. Retrieved from Royal College of Psychiatrists


    “Cancer Complications.” (n.d.). Retrieved August 31, 2012, from  

    “Cancer Staging.” (2010, September 22). National Cancer Institute Factsheet. Retrieved from National Cancer Institute website:

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    Care of Cancer Diagnosis in Many Cases

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    Words: 1666 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53309325

    Care of Cancer

    Cancer diagnosis

    In many cases the sooner cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins the better the chances of a person recovering fully. If one develops cancer they can improve the chance of early detection if they have regular medical checkups and do some self-exams. Doctors often find early cancer during a physical exam or when carrying out routine tests even when there were no symptoms presented.

    There are several methods that are used to diagnose cancer .with technological advancement these methods are now better as they help in a better understanding of cancer .there are now many diagnostic tools that can be used in cancer detection. Once cancer I suspected a diagnosis is made by pathologists and oncopathologists and imaging radiologists. The common diagnostic methods are;


    This test involves a small tissue sample being taken from the area where cancer is suspected using a fine tipped…… [Read More]


    Mandal, A.(2010). Cancer Diagnosis.Retrieved September 24,2013 from 

    American Society of Clinical Oncolog.(2013). Stages of Cancer. Retrieved September 24,2013 from

    Armstrong, B.(2012).What are the different stages of cancer and what do they mean? Retrieved September 24,2013 from complications. Retrieved September 24,2013 from

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    Comparing Pet Ct to Bone Scans in Bone Metastases

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    Words: 789 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73922079

    Breast Cancer and Imaging

    There are still a number of cases where women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer exhibit metastatic disease at the first presentation, this despite the fact that there have been significant steps made towards early detection of breast cancer. In the United States alone, five percent of such cases have been reported with a further thirty percent of women with early-stage, non-metastatic breast cancer at diagnosis having the possibility of developing distant metastatic disease. A cure has not been found for metastatic breast cancer, however the introduction of newer systematic therapies has led to significant improvements in survival (Scott, 2015).

    What is breast cancer?

    Cancers are named depending on the location of such mass of tissue, therefore when the cell division and growth in the breast is abnormal there occurs breast cancer. Most of these abnormal cell growth happen slowly and over time before they…… [Read More]


    Morris, P.G. et al. Integrated positron emission tomography/computed tomography may render bone scintigraphy unnecessary to investigate suspected metastatic breast cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2010; 28(19): 3155-3159.

    Sahin, Ertan et al. Is 99 mTc-MDP whole body bone scintigraphy adjuvant to 18F-FDG-PET for the detection of skeletal metastases? JBUON 2014; 19(1): 291-296.

    Scott, A.F. Systemic treatment of metastatic breast cancer in women: Chemotherapy. 2015


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    Teenage Breast Augmentation This Is

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    Words: 5573 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60862518

    In the case of breast augmentation, the parent must guide the minor to the right decision — and that is usually not to have the surgery unless it is necessary for the teen’s overall health. It is up to the adult to think responsibly. There are dangers to any surgery and infections are not among the least of them. Perhaps low self-esteem is a reason for counseling by a professional, but not necessarily reason to alter one’s body artificially.

    The ethical responsibilities of the parent in a discussion with their underage teen regarding whether or not to have her breast augmented, are even greater and more impacting than the legal issues.

    The 1800 girls under the age of 18 who had their breasts augmented last year alone are under the ethical (and rational) reasoning of the parent. These are the parents who are taking out financing to do the surgery…… [Read More]


    Agence France-Presse Newswire Service. Germany to Ban Cosmetic Surgery for Children. Paris, 23 April 2008.

    Annas, George. The rights of patients: The basic ACLU guide to patient rights. New York City: Humana Press, 1992.

    Clough, Craig. “Doc Urges Caution on Teen Breast Implants.” 4 April 2008. 3 August 2009 .

    Duenwald, Mary. “How Young is Too Young to Have a Nose Job and Breast Implants.” New York Times 28 September 2004: F5.

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    Health Policy and Politics

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    Words: 1763 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51648360


    Health Policy and Politics

    In Support of H.. 80: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer esearch and Education Act of 2013

    Sender’s Name

    Sender’s Address

    Tel [HIDDEN]

    Honorable Kathy Castor

    14th District of Florida

    4144 N. Armenia Ave., Suite 300

    Tel [HIDDEN]

    In Support of H.. 80: Triple-Negative Breast Cancer esearch and Education Act of 2013

    Dear Mrs. Castor:

    I am writing to urge your support for H.. 80, a bill sponsored by epresentative Sheila Lee (D, TX) and introduced into the House Energy & Commerce Committee on January 3, 2013. The title of the bill is “Triple-Negative Breast Cancer esearch and Education Act of 2013” and its goal is to provide funding for additional research into triple-negative breast cancer. The bill also authorizes funding to support the gathering of evidenced-based information about triple-negative breast cancer and its dissemination to the public and medical care providers, with the goal of increasing early…… [Read More]


    CDC (2013). Age-adjusted invasive cancer incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals by state. National Program of Cancer Registries, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 29 Jan. 2013 from / cancersrankedbystate.aspx#Footnotes.

    Chu, Quyen D., Henderson, Amanda E., Ampil, Fred, and Li, Benjamin D.L. (2012). Outcome for patients with triple-negative breast cancer is not dependent on race/ethnicity. International Journal of Breast Cancer, 2012, doc. # 764570.

    Fessler, Pam. (2013, Jan. 30). Study: Nearly half in U.S. lack financial safety net. Morning Edition, National Public Radio. Retrieved 30 Jan. 2013 from / 01/30/170561872/study-nearly-half-in-u-s-lack-financial-safety-net.

    Fornier, Monica and Fumoleau, Pierre. (2011). The paradox of triple negative breast cancer: Novel approaches to treatment. Breast Journal, 18(1), 41-51.

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    Essay/Term paper: Cancer

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    Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by an uncontrolled growth of
    abnormal cells. If the spread of these abnormal cells is not controlled, cancer
    can cause death. Most cancers take the form of tumors, although not all tumors
    are cancers. A tumor is simply a mass of new tissue that serves no
    physiological purpose. It can be benign, like a wart, or malignant, like cancer.
    Benign tumors are made up of cells similar to the surrounding normal cells and
    are enclosed in a membrane that prevents them from penetrating neighboring
    tissues. They are dangerous only if their physical presence interferes with
    bodily functions. A malignant tumor, or cancer, is capable of invading
    surrounding structures, including blood vessels, the lymph system and nerves.
    It can also spread to distant sites by the blood and lymphatic circulation and
    so can produce invasive tumors in almost any part of the body.
    In 1997, an estimated 1,359,150 people in the United States will be
    diagnosed with cancer and 554,740 will die of the disease. Early screening for
    cancer is believed to be able to drastically reduce the number of deaths due to
    the disease. Knowing what to look for when detecting cancer, as well as knowing
    if you are in a high risk population are two of the main factors of early
    intervention. Early intervention of cancer has proven to increase survival
    rates and lower the length and severity of treatments. Detection and protection
    are two types of ambulatory care for cancer that begin before the disease is
    ever diagnosed.

    Cancer often causes symptoms that you can watch for. These include:
    change in bowel or bladder habits; a sore that does not heal; unusual bleeding
    or discharge; thickening or lump in the breast or any other part of the body;
    indigestion or difficulty swallowing; obvious change in a wart or mole; and
    nagging cough or hoarseness. These symptoms are not always warning signs of
    cancer. They can also be caused by less serious conditions. It is important to
    see a doctor if any of these symptoms occur. Only a doctor can make a diagnosis.
    A person shouldn’t wait to feel pain because early cancer usually does not
    cause pain.
    Observation is the most widely available examination for the detection
    of cancer. It is useful in identifying suspicious lesions in the skin, lip,
    mouth, larynx, external genitalia and cervix. The second most available
    detection procedure is palpation. It is particularly valuable in detecting
    lumps, nodules, or tumors in the breast, mouth, salivary glands, thyroid,
    subcutaneous tissues, anus, rectum, prostate, testes, ovaries and uterus and
    enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, axilla or groin.
    Internal cancers require an extension of observation through endoscopes,
    x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound. Laboratory test, such as
    the Pap smear, and occult blood testing of the feces have also proven helpful
    for some of the cancers. However, concerns regarding effectiveness and yield
    play a particularly important role in decisions to screen for cancers not easily
    responsive to earlier detection through physical examination. The performance
    of these tests is usually measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and
    positive and negative predictive values.
    The type, periodicity, and commencement of screening in high-risk
    populations for most cancers reflect the judgment of expert practitioners rather
    that evidence from scientifically- conducted test. Some individuals are known
    to be at high risk for cancer, such as those with a strong family history of
    cancer. Physician judgment is needed in such circumstances to determine the
    most appropriate application of available screening methods. Once the high-risk
    person is identified, is counseled appropriately, and regularly undergoes
    screening procedures, the benefits of early detection and treatment are
    available to this person, yielding a proven higher chance of recovery. Those
    people considered high risk should take extra precautions when attempting to
    detect cancer.

    Important facts that a person should know about how to protect against
    getting cancer include: not using tobacco products; eating at least five
    servings of fruits and vegetables each day; if you are a woman, getting a
    mammogram, pelvic exam and Pap test every year; getting tests done as you get
    older for cancers of the colon and rectum; if you are a man, getting early
    detection tests for prostate cancer, avoiding too much sunlight by wearing
    protective clothing and sun screen; and avoiding unnecessary x-rays. If a
    person does have cancer, it is wise to find out what the treatment choices are
    and which are best suited for that person. Before getting treatment, it is
    advisable to get a second opinion from another doctor. These are all forms of
    protection that can be done by an ambulatory basis.

    Four basic forms of treatment for cancer are currently practiced. These
    are surgery, radiation therapy, biological therapy and chemotherapy. All but
    surgery can be performed on an outpatient basis. The physician may use one form
    of therapy or a number of different forms in order to produce the desired

    page 4

    Radiation therapy is one of the major ambulatory treatment modalities
    for cancer. Approximately 60% of all people with cancer will be treated with
    radiation therapy sometime during the course of their disease. Its
    effectiveness as a treatment for cancer was first reported in the late 1800s.
    Advances in equipment technology, combined with the science of radiobiology,
    have led to today’s highly sophisticated treatment centers. Radiation therapy
    can now be delivered with maximum therapeutic benefits, minimizing toxicity and
    sparing healthy tissues.
    Radiation therapy uses high-energy ionizing radiation to kill cancer
    cells. It is considered a local therapy because the cancer cells are destroyed
    only in the anatomical area being treated. The radiation causes a breakage of
    one or both stands of the DNA molecule inside the cells, therefor preventing
    their ability to grow and divide. While cells in all phases of the cell cycle
    can be damaged by radiation, the lethal effect of radiation may not be apparent
    until after one or more cell divisions have occurred. Although normal cells can
    also be affected by ionizing radiation, they are usually better able to repair
    their DNA damage.
    Radiation treatments can be administered externally or internally,
    depending on the type and extent of the tumor, however only external radiation
    can be administered in an out-patient basis. Some patients have both forms,
    one after the other. X-rays, radioactive elements, and radioactive isotopes are
    most often used in these forms of treatment.
    External radiation treatments are administered by machines that deliver
    high-energy radiation. These machines vary according to the amount and type of
    energy produced. The kind of machine will differ depending on the type and
    extent of the tumor. Technological advances have permitted the development of
    machines with increased energy, allowing for precise treatments of deep seated
    tumors with less damage to superficial tissues.
    Treatment of cancer with radiation can be costly. It requires very
    complex equipment and the service of many health care professionals. The exact
    cost of the radiation therapy will depend of the type and number of treatments
    given. Most health insurance policies cover charges for radiation therapy, and
    in some states the Medicaid program may help pay for the treatments.
    The side effects of radiation treatment vary from patient to patient.
    Some may have no side effect or only a few mild ones through the course of
    treatment. Some may have more serious side effects. The side effects one has
    depends mostly on the treatment dose and the part of the body that is treated.
    There are two main types of side effects: acute and chronic. Acute
    occurs close to the time of the treatment and usually are gone completely within
    a few weeks of finishing therapy. Chronic side effects may take months or years
    to develop and are usually permanent. The most common side effects are fatigue,
    skin changes, and loss of appetite. The can result from radiation to any
    treatment site. Other side effects are related to treatment of specific areas,
    such as hair loss as a result of radiation treatment to the head. The majority
    of side effects will go away in time.

    Biological therapy (sometimes called immunotherapy, biotherapy, or
    biological response modified therapy) is a promising new addition to the family
    of cancer treatments. Biological therapies use the body’s immune system, either
    directly or indirectly, to fight cancer or to lessen side effects that may be
    caused by some cancer treatments.
    The body has a natural ability to protect itself against diseases,
    including cancer. The immune system, a complex network of cells and organs that
    work together to defend the body against attacks by foreign invaders, is one of
    the body’s main defenses against disease.
    Researchers have found that the immune system may recognize the
    difference between healthy cells and cancer cells in the body and eliminate
    those that become cancerous. Cancer may develop when the immune system breaks
    down or is overwhelmed. Biological therapies are designed to repair, stimulate
    or enhance the immune system’s natural anticancer function.
    Immune system cells and proteins called antibodies, which are part of
    the immune system, work against cancer and other diseases by creating an immune
    response against foreign invaders. This immune response is unique because
    antibodies are specifically programmed to recognize and defend against certain
    antigens. Antibodies respond to antigens by latching on to them. Biological
    therapies used to treat cancer target some of the defenses by boosting,
    directing or restoring the body’s own cancer-fighting mechanisms.

    Chemotherapy is the use of medications or chemicals with cancer-fighting
    abilities. Chemotherapy drugs interfere with the cancer cells’ ability to grow
    or multiply. Different groups of drugs act on cells in different ways.
    Identification of the type of disease is important because certain
    chemotherapies work best for certain diseases. Even patients diagnosed with the
    same disease may be treated with different agents, depending on what is known to
    be most effective for the particular circumstances. Chemotherapy can damage
    normal cells as well as cancer cells. Those normal cells most effected are ones
    which divide rapidly. These include the hair follicles, cells in the
    gastrointestinal tract and bone marrow.
    Chemotherapy can be given in different ways. The five most common
    methods are: intravenous, oral, intramuscular, intrathecal and intraperitoneal.
    The intravenous route, or IV, is a very common way of giving medication
    directly into a vein. A small plastic needle is inserted into one of the veins
    in the lower arm. There is some discomfort during insertion because a needle
    stick is required to get into the vein. After that, the administration of the
    medication is usually painless. Chemotherapy flows from the IV bag through the
    needle and catheter into the bloodstream. Sometimes a syringe is used to push
    the chemotherapy through the tubing.
    The oral method takes the form of either a pill, capsule or liquid taken
    by mouth. This is the easiest and most convenient method and can usually be
    done at home.
    Intramuscular is when the chemotherapy is given by way of an injection
    into the muscle. There is a slight sing as the needle is placed into the muscle
    of the arm, thigh or buttocks. Although this procedure lasts only a few seconds,
    the effect of the intramuscular chemotherapy may last much longer. This is
    because the chemotherapy may be absorbed slowly through the muscular tissues and
    into the bloodstream.
    Certain forms of cancer have a tendency to spread to the nervous system.
    To treat cancer that spreads to the spinal cord or brain, doctors may perform a
    spinal tap and inject chemotherapy into the spinal fluid. The is known as the
    intrathecal method of administration of chemotherapy.
    Chemotherapy may also be given by an intraperitoneal port. This device
    sits under the skin and requires no specific home care. The port allows for
    placing chemotherapy directly into the abdominal cavity. This technique is used
    to increase the concentration of the chemotherapy that contacts tumors in the
    For some patients, IV insertions can eventually damage the veins in the
    arm. Some patients have small veins and some have very few accessible veins.
    Frequent IV insertions and too small or too few veins may prompt the doctor to
    recommend a permanent type of IV catheter. Permanent catheters allow patients
    to go home and receive chemotherapy without needing other IV’s placed. Along
    with receiving chemotherapy and IV fluids through this catheter, patients can
    receive blood products and even have their blood drawn without painful needle
    Chemotherapy may be given once a day, once a week, or even once a month,
    depending on the type of cancer and what research has shown is the best time
    period for treatment. How much chemotherapy costs will depend on a lot of
    things, such as the kind of drugs used and how often you take them. Some
    medical insurance pays for chemotherapy and government programs such as Medicare
    and Medicaid can also help cover the costs.
    Side effects of chemotherapy vary from each patient. Some patients take
    chemotherapy and feel no changes at all. However, chemotherapy sometimes makes
    you feel sick after the drugs get into the body. This is because very strong
    drugs are being used. They go after any cell that is quickly dividing, whether
    it is a cancer cell or not. Cells in the hair, bone marrow, skin, mouth, and in
    the stomach normally divide quickly in the body. This is why the side effects
    of chemotherapy can mean hair loss or feeling tired. Sores in the mouth, dry
    skin and hair, or sickness to the stomach are also common side effects of
    There are some medications that a person can take that could help get
    rid of some of the side effects. There are few lasting problems, and unpleasant
    symptoms often go away as soon as the treatment is finished.
    Chemotherapy might be taken before or after surgery. Or, it could be
    administered with radiation treatment. Some people also have chemotherapy
    without surgery or radiation. Chemotherapy is not new. It has been helping
    people since the early 1950s. Today it can be very effective in killing cancer
    Cancer is a very serious disease, and is one which many people fear.
    Ambulatory treatment for cancer can be done in several different ways, but the
    most effective kinds of ambulatory care for cancer is prevention and early
    detection. This way, it is possible that a person will not have to undergo
    cancer treatments. However, if cancer is diagnosed in a person, ambulatory
    treatment options are available in attempts to rid the body of the cancer. With
    this in mind, today’s cancer patients and those with a high-risk potential for
    acquiring cancer, will have many options available to them to manage the disease.


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