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Chicago/Turabian Style Formatting Guidelines

Chicago/Turabian Style Formatting Guidelines

chicago turabian style papers

What Are Chicago/Turabian Style Papers?

The Chicago Manual of Style, often abbreviated as CMS, is extensively utilized in works of social disciplines as well as historical periodicals. Chicago/Turabian is regarded as one of the most frequently used and well-established formatting styles in the US.

Chicago/Turabian Style Structure Requirements

In general, when writing a paper in the Chicago/Turabian style, you must stick to the following requirements:

  • Utilize a plain font. In general, it’s advisable to use Times New Roman 12 pt.
  • Use double spacing, apart from when you add block quotations.
  • Margins should be of 1”.
  • Do not add spaces between paragraphs.
  • Write your surname and the page number on the upper right side of each page.
  • The title page is not numbered. On the first page of the paper, write the number 2.
  • When using the Chicago/Turabian format, you must include annotations for rewritten or reproduced excerpts.

Chicago/Turabian papers include Title Page, Main Body, and References. Start with the title page, also referred to as the cover page. Next, write the main body of the essay. Finish by introducing the bibliography, which consists of all the references you utilized in your study.

Title Page

When writing the title page, spacing is of the essence. You should ask your professor to give you the particular requirements regarding the outline of the cover page. As a general rule, stick to the following requirements:

  • Write the title 1/3 down the page. In case your title exceeds one row, use double spacing.
  • Your full name must be written in the middle of the title page. Don’t forget to center it!
  • Write the class number, the professor’s name and the date 2/3 down the page. Each of these elements ought to be written in distinct rows. Use double spacing.

How to Use In-Text References

In the Chicago/Turabian formatting style, references in brackets ought to follow the rules listed below:

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  • Include the author’s surname, issuing date and page number.
  • Do not use acronyms.
  • Do not add any punctuation marks between the author’s surname and the issuing date.
  • Between the year and page number, you ought to place a comma.
  • References in brackets ought to follow straightforward quotations. In case of rewritten data, you should utilize annotations.
  • If the author is unknown, utilize an abbreviated title of the work.
  • If you quote the same pages of a work, you must only specify the entire work after the last citation.
  • In this citation style, the rule is that you must add references after each quotation, which may become superfluous. Add as few references as possible. However, keep in mind that using too many references is preferable to using too few.

For instance:

“It is not right to regard philosophy as a fundamental discipline in high schools and colleges. If an individual does not comprehend the basic principles of philosophy, they will always be incapable of acknowledging the greater purpose and value of the discipline; therefore, introducing them to it represents a misuse of the time of both the teacher and the student. Philosophy should only be approached by those who are animated, inquiring and unquestionably gifted.” (Johnson 2005, 67)

How to Add Footnotes and Endnotes in a Chicago/Turabian Essay

As discussed earlier, in a Chicago/Turabian paper, you must add annotations or endnotes whenever you utilize a plain citation or a reworded resume of a work.

  • Add annotations at the end of the page where you cite the work.
  • An endnote is an anthology of work citations. It must be included at the end of every chapter or at the end of the essay.

In Chicago/Turabian style essays, you can use either of them. Regardless of what you choose, you must start by adding a superscript number, to which you must attach bibliographical data.

The first entry for each work needs to comprise the entirety of pertinent data pertaining to it. Write the author’s complete name, work title and publication. When you reference the same work another time, the entry must solely comprise the author’s last name, an abbreviated version of the title (in the eventuality that the title includes more than four words) as well as the page numbers. When you reference the same work and page more than twice, add the term “Ibid”, which stands for “from the same source”. In case the references are from distinct pages, add “Ibid” and the page number.

For instance:

  • When writing Chicago/Turabian essays, you must utilize footnotes.1 Footnotes have a large array of advantages, the most noteworthy one being the fact that they offer swift access to data.2 It goes without saying that students find it easier to use footnotes instead of lengthy and puzzling bibliography sections, as they can comprise more data; footnotes have no disadvantages.3
  • 1James Johnson, “Everything You Need to Know About the Chicago/Turabian Style: The Advantages of Using It”. Elite Essay Writers publication, 2015. While these are utilized in Chicago/Turabian papers, they are also frequently utilized in different reference styles.
  • 2Johnson, “The Advantages of Using It” 56-79. A rapid and straightforward accessibility may also be provided by including a bibliography section at the end of the paper. Nevertheless, research has demonstrated that not many students read it. On the other hand, a lot of them look at the footnotes written at the end of each page.
  • 3 Ibid. This may constitute an imprecise assertion, as footnotes are known to present a disadvantage which is not approached in the paper: the reader might be distracted from the point of the essay.

3 Ibid. This may constitute an imprecise assertion, as footnotes are known to present a disadvantage which is not approached in the paper: the reader might be distracted from the point of the essay.

Chicago/Turabian Papers Bibliography Section

The Chicago/Turabian reference section must be included at the end of the essay. This section enumerates all of the works you used, including the ones you mentioned using annotations. Here are the requirements for the reference section:

  • Use alphabetic order.
  • In the upper side of the page, add the word “Bibliography” and center it.
  • Add all of your sources. Also, list other pertinent works.

How to Add References

  • Names: Write both the surname and the first name.
  • Titles: For lengthier sources like books or periodicals, use italics. For shorter sources like articles, chapters or pieces of poetry, use quotes.
  • Issuing Data: Mention the publishing company first. Then add the periodical name.
  • Punctuation marks: All important components must be separated using periods.

Books (single author)

  • Annotation 1: James Johnson, The Chicago/Turabian Style: How to Use It. (London: Elite Publishing, 2010), 20-29.
  • Annotation 2: James Johnson, The Chicago/Turabian Style, 11.
  • Bibliography: Johnson, James. The Chicago/Turabian Style: How to Use It. London: Elite Publishing, 2010.

Books (multiple authors)

  • Annotation 1: John Anderson and Robert Williams, Essay Writing: How to Do It, 2013-2016 (London: Elite Writings, 2015), 94.
  • Annotation 2: Anderson and Williams, Essay Writing, 76-54.
  • Bibliography: Anderson, John and Williams, Robert. Essay Writing: How to Do It, 2013-2016. London: Elite Writings, 2015

Chapter (Included in a book)

  • Annotation 1: Paul P. Arnold, “How I Became a Star.” In The Road to Fame: Amazing Showbusiness Figures. (San Francisco: Elite Press, 2007), 46.
  • Annotation 2: Arnold, Paul P. “Became a Star”, 67-70.
  • Bibliography: Arnold, Paul P. “How I Became a Star.” In The Road to Fame: Amazing Showbusiness Figures. 67-70. San Francisco: Elite Press, 2007.

E-Book

  • Annotation 1: Andrew Steel, The Path to Success (London: Elite Publishing, 2011), Kindle version.
  • Annotation 2: Steel, (The Path to Success*.
  • Bibliography: Steel, Andrew. The Path to Success. London: Elite Publishing, 2011. Kindle version.

Periodical Article

For such entries, you should only mention particular pages in the annotation. However, in the reference section, you must mention the entire range of the particle.

  • Annotation 1: Bernard White, “How to Write Great Essays” Elite Essay Magazine 95 (1056): #135.
  • Annotation 2: White, “Essays,” 102.
  • Bibliography: White, Bernard. “How to Write Great Essays.” Elite Essay Magazine #135 (1056): 95-105.

Website

Websites (including academical articles) can be cited either in the text or as annotations. If you do this, you don’t need to mention them in the reference section. For instance: (“Towards the end of 2017, work on the fortification separating the US and Mexico will begin, as mentioned on the US Government website…”). In case you need to add a more official reference, there are no specific requirements. Add the date when you accessed the website or, if possible, the date when the website was last modified.

  • Annotation 1: “Chicago/Turabian Style Format.” Last modified March 24, 2017, link
  • Annotation 2: “Chicago/Turabian Style Format.”
  • Bibliography: Chicago/Turabian. “Chicago/Turabian Style Format.” Last modified March 24, 2017. link

Can You Now Write a Chicago/Turabian Essay?

If you don’t feel ready yet, we can offer you a great solution. Access Elite Essay Writers and hire one of our many professional essay writers . All of our writers are highly proficient in using the Chicago/Turabian formatting style in essays. You can either order a brand-new essay, or ask us to edit or proofread an essay you’ve already written. We’re always ready to help!

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Home » Current students » Learning development » Academic integrity » Referencing » Chicago Manual of Style

Chicago Manual of Style

Referencing

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The Chicago Manual’s footnote referencing system – called notes and bibliography style – is widely used in the arts and humanities. Chicago also has an author-date style, where the citation occurs in parentheses in the body of the text. However, it is most common to use the Chicago notes and bibliography system.

Chicago Manual of Style guides

Library resource

  • The Chicago manual of style , 16th ed.

Online 

  • Chicago Manual of Style Online

  • Monash University guide to Chicago

Referencing in Chicago Manual of Style

Let’s go through the steps of how to use a style guide to reference in Chicago, using the Chicago Manual of Style footnoting system.

The bibliography entry

Start by doing the bibliography entry. If you get this right early on, it will save you a lot of time.

1. Identify what the source is, where it’s from, and who it’s by.

Is it a book? A journal article? An interview? Did you access it online? How many authors does it have? The source’s characteristics influence how to reference it.

Say for instance you need to reference a journal article that you found online, such as the one below. The screenshot below shows the information that is on the cover page of the article. This information tells you that it is an article from the journal, and that it has one author.

A word of warning-even though it says “To cite this article”, don’t simply copy and paste that information and leave it as it is. The style of citation that the journal provides is usually different to the style that you have to use.

2. Find a matching example in your style guide.

The aim is to find the closest example possible in your chosen style guide. For the following examples, we’re using the online guide . In the guide, you can find an example for an online journal article.

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978-2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1-34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

Please note that Chicago bibliography entries use a hanging indent, like the image below. A hanging indent is where the second and subsequent lines of the entry are indented – you can select a hanging indent in the paragraph options of your document.

Note that the above example has three authors. We want to see how to reference an article by one author. We can also look at another example in the guide which has a single-authored (but not online) journal article.

Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165-76.

3. Write out the reference following the style guide examples.

Your aim at this point is to make the information that you have match the order and formatting of the information from the style guide. This includes the details such as punctuation. If you’re ever unsure, remember that your markers care most of all about consistency and having enough information to be able to locate the source themselves. Check over your references to make sure they’re following the same principles and formatting.

Author names

First, you need to identify the author’s surname (also known as their last name, or family name). In this case it is Diependaal. Then, you need to work out the author’s first name.

Diependaal, Irène.

Article and journal title

Then comes the article title and the journal name (in italics).

Diependaal, Irène. “Hanover: A German Dynasty and its Symbols.” The Court Historian

Publication details

After that, you need the volume number (20) and, if available, the issue number (2), then the year (2015). You will also need the page range (219-223). Sometimes you may need to look elsewhere in the article or on the journal’s website to find out these details.

Diependaal, Irène. “Hanover: A German Dynasty and its Symbols.” The Court Historian 20, no. 2 (2015): 219-223.

Finally, if you found the article online, you need to give the date of access and, if available, the DOI. Look to see if the article has a DOI – a Digital Object Identifier. This is like a stable URL.

A finished reference

Following the above steps, this is what your bibliography entry will look like:

Diependaal, Irène. “Hanover: A German Dynasty and its Symbols.” The Court Historian 20, no. 2 (2015): 219-223. Accessed March 23, 2017. doi:10.1179/1462971215Z.00000000023

Footnotes

When you use Chicago, you need to use footnotes in the body of your work to show where the information comes from. Footnotes are superscript numbers inserted in your text whenever you use a source. The information about the source of each numbered reference is given at the bottom of each page of your text.

Remember to check the guide carefully, since footnotes are written differently to bibliography entries. For example, the footnote for the sample source looks like:

1 Irène Diependaal, “Hanover: A German Dynasty and its Symbols,” The Court Historian 20, no. 2 (2015): 220, accessed March 23, 2017, doi:10.1179/1462971215Z.00000000023

Notice that the order of the author’s name has changed. Note too that the page number is different from the bibliography entry (which gave the article’s first and last page). In a footnote, only the page/s referred to is needed. There are also differences with the punctuation, such as a commas after the title and page number.

A page of an essay using footnotes looks like the image below.

Include page numbers in your footnotes whenever you use quotes, specific data or a close paraphrase. If you are summarising the main idea of the whole article, you don’t need a page number.

Check your guide

Always remember to have your chosen style guide open while you are referencing-even if you use referencing software. It’s useful to look out for inconsistencies and to make sure that you have all the right information in the correct order and format. Check out the style guides listed above.

Journal and author of an article

A word of warning—even though it says “To cite this article”, don’t simply copy and paste that information and leave it as it is. The style of citation that the journal provides is usually different to the style that you have to use.

2. Find a matching example in your style guide.

The aim is to find the closest example possible in your chosen style guide. For the following examples, we’re using the online guide . In the guide, you can find an example for an online journal article.

Keng, Shao-Hsun, Chun-Hung Lin, and Peter F. Orazem. “Expanding College Access in Taiwan, 1978–2014: Effects on Graduate Quality and Income Inequality.” Journal of Human Capital 11, no. 1 (Spring 2017): 1–34. https://doi.org/10.1086/690235.

Please note that Chicago bibliography entries use a hanging indent, like the image below. A hanging indent is where the second and subsequent lines of the entry are indented – you can select a hanging indent in the paragraph options of your document.

Hanging indent in the bibliography entry

Hanging indent in the bibliography entry

Note that the above example has three authors. We want to see how to reference an article by one author. We can also look at another example in the guide which has a single-authored (but not online) journal article.

Satterfield, Susan. “Livy and the Pax Deum.” Classical Philology 111, no. 2 (April 2016): 165–76.

Hanging indent in the bibliography entry with one author

Hanging indent in the bibliography entry with one author

3. Write out the reference following the style guide examples.

Your aim at this point is to make the information that you have match the order and formatting of the information from the style guide. This includes the details such as punctuation. If you’re ever unsure, remember that your markers care most of all about consistency and having enough information to be able to locate the source themselves. Check over your references to make sure they’re following the same principles and formatting.

Author names

First, you need to identify the author’s surname (also known as their last name, or family name). In this case it is Diependaal. Then, you need to work out the author’s first name.

Diependaal, Irène.

Article and journal title

Then comes the article title and the journal name (in italics).

Diependaal, Irène. “Hanover: A German Dynasty and its Symbols.” The Court Historian

Publication details

After that, you need the volume number (20) and, if available, the issue number (2), then the year (2015). You will also need the page range (219-223). Sometimes you may need to look elsewhere in the article or on the journal’s website to find out these details.

Diependaal, Irène. “Hanover: A German Dynasty and its Symbols.” The Court Historian 20, no. 2 (2015): 219-223.

Finally, if you found the article online, you need to give the date of access and, if available, the DOI. Look to see if the article has a DOI – a Digital Object Identifier. This is like a stable URL.

A finished reference

Following the above steps, this is what your bibliography entry will look like:

Diependaal, Irène. “Hanover: A German Dynasty and its Symbols.” The Court Historian 20, no. 2 (2015): 219-223. Accessed March 23, 2017. doi:10.1179/1462971215Z.00000000023

Finished bibliography entry with hanging indent

Finished bibliography entry with hanging indent

Footnotes

When you use Chicago, you need to use footnotes in the body of your work to show where the information comes from. Footnotes are superscript numbers inserted in your text whenever you use a source. The information about the source of each numbered reference is given at the bottom of each page of your text.

Remember to check the guide carefully, since footnotes are written differently to bibliography entries. For example, the footnote for the sample source looks like:

1 Irène Diependaal, “Hanover: A German Dynasty and its Symbols,” The Court Historian 20, no. 2 (2015): 220, accessed March 23, 2017, doi:10.1179/1462971215Z.00000000023

Notice that the order of the author’s name has changed. Note too that the page number is different from the bibliography entry (which gave the article’s first and last page). In a footnote, only the page/s referred to is needed. There are also differences with the punctuation, such as a commas after the title and page number.

A page of an essay using footnotes looks like the image below.

A page of an essay using Chicago footnotes

A page of an essay using Chicago footnotes

Include page numbers in your footnotes whenever you use quotes, specific data or a close paraphrase. If you are summarising the main idea of the whole article, you don’t need a page number.

Check your guide

Always remember to have your chosen style guide open while you are referencing—even if you use referencing software. It’s useful to look out for inconsistencies and to make sure that you have all the right information in the correct order and format. Check out the style guides listed above.

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